The functional currency of Boskalis is the euro. A number of group companies, the most important one of which is Dockwise, as well as several substantial associated companies (Smit Lamnalco, Keppel Smit Towage, Asian Lift) have a functional currency other than the euro. The most important one of these is the US dollar, which is also the functional currency of Dockwise, followed by the Singapore dollar. However, most of the revenues and expenses of these entities are also largely or entirely based on these same non-euro currencies. The holdings in these entities are viewed from a long-term perspective. Exchange rate risks related to these entities are not hedged, as it is assumed that currency fluctuations and developments in interest rates and inflation will offset each other in the long term. The income statements of these entities are translated at average exchange rates and the balance sheets are translated at the relevant exchanges rates per the balance sheet date. Translation differences are charged or credited directly to shareholders’ equity.
A large proportion of the activities of the group companies that have the euro as functional currency are not contracted in euros. This applies in particular to the group companies that are involved in dredging and related projects. The costs of these entities, however, are largely based on the euro. Generally, the net cash flows in non-euro currencies within these entities are fully hedged as soon as they occur, usually by means of forward exchange contracts. The US dollar exchange rate in relation to the euro is particularly relevant in this context. A large proportion of the projects are contracted in US dollars or in currencies that are to a greater or lesser extent linked to the US dollar. Most of our major international competitors in the dredging industry also have cost structures largely based on the euro. This implies that exchange rate fluctuations have no major impact on our relative competitive position. In a number of market segments, in particular Offshore Energy and Towage, there is competition from parties whose cost structures are not based on the euro, and the competitive impact of currency fluctuations in these market segments is greater. On balance, exchange rate fluctuations only have a limited impact on the company’s competitive position in these activities.
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